Ortep Association
Ortep and Antifoulants
Ortep Association
Environmental Research Background What's New

Environmental Research:
Marine Mammals
Sea Otters
Sea Birds
Endocrine Effects
TBT Paint Types

References -
Environmental Research

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Ariese F., V. van Hattum, J. Boon, and C. ten Hallers-Tjabbes. 1998. Butyltin and phenyltin compounds in liver and blubber samples of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) Stranded in Netherlands and Denmark. Institute of Environmental Studies, Vrije Universitieit, Netherlands.

Bennett, R.F. 1996. Industrial manufacture and applications of tributyltin compounds. Pages 21 � 61 in S.J. De Mora, editor. Tributyltin: Case Study of an Environmental Contaminant. Cambridge Environmental Chemistry Series No. 8.

Bettin, C., J. Oehlmann, and E. Stroben. 1996. TBT-induced imposex in marine neogastropods is mediated by an increasing androgen level. Heigol. Meeresunters. 50:299-317.

Beyer, W.N., G.H. Heinz, and A.W. Redmon-Norwood. 1996. Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife: Interpreting Tissue Concentrations. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida. 494 pp.

Biodynamics, Inc. 1990. A two-generation reproduction study in rats with bis (tri-n-butyltin) oxide. Final Report: Volume I of V. Submitted to Schering A.G. and Atochem North America. Project No. 88-3261. October 22, 1990.

Cardwell, R.D., J.C. Keithly, and J. Simmonds. 1999. Tributyltin in U.S. market-bought seafood and assessment of human health risks. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. 5(2):317-335.

Cardwell, R.D., M.S. Brancato, J. Toll, D. DeForest, and L. Tear. 1999. Aquatic ecological risks posed by tributyltin in U.S. surface waters: pre-1989 to 1996 data. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 18(3):567-577.

Champ, M.A. and P.F. Seligman. 1996. An introduction to organotin compounds and their use in antifouling coatings. Pages 1-25 in M.A. Champ and P.F. Seligman, editors. Organotin Environmental Fate and Effects. Chapman & Hall, London.

Chapman, P.M., M. Cano, A.T. Fritz, C. Gaudet, C. Menzie, M. Sprenger, and W. Stubblefield. 1997. Workgroup summary report on contaminated site cleanup decisions. Pages 83 - 114 in C. Ingersoll, T. Dillon, and G. Biddinger, editors. Ecological Risk Assessment of Contaminated Sediments. SETAC Press, Pensacola, Florida.

Cox, V. 1993. The ocean�s canaries? Marine mammal die-offs may signal too-polluted seas. Sea-Front. 39:16-18.

Davies, I.M., M.J.C. Harding, S.K. Bailey, A.M. Shanks, and R. L�nge. 1997. Sublethal effects of tributyltin oxide on the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 158:191-204.

DeForest, D., M.S. Brancato, and D. Henderson. 1998. Potential risks posed by tributyltin to North Sea bird populations. Pages 56-73 in Further updates on the toxicology of tributyltin, including assessments of risks to humans, wildlife, and aquatic life. Submitted by CEFIC to the International Maritime Organization, Marine Environmental Protection Committee Session 42. August 1998.

F�ral, C. and S. Le Gall. 1983. The influence of a pollutant factor (tributyltin) on the neuroendocrine mechanism responsible for the occurrence of a penis in the females of Ocenebra erinacea. Pages 173-175 in J. Lever and H.H. Boer, editors. Molluscan neuro-endocrinology. Proceedings of the International Minisymposium on Molluscan Endocrinology. Free University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, August 16-20, 1982. North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam.

Fiorini, P., J. Oehlmann, and E. Stroben. 1991. The pseudohermaphroditism of prosobranchs: Morphological aspects. Zool. Anz. 226:1-26.

Funahashi, N., I. Iwasaki, and G. Ide. 1980. Effects of bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide on endocrine and lymphoid organs of male rats. Acta. Pathol. Japan. 30:955-966.

Geraci, J.R. 1989. Clinical investigations of 1990 Gulf of Mexico bottlenose dolphin strandings, Southeast Fisheries Science Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, Florida. 53 - 55 pp.

Green, G.A., R. Cardwell, and M.S. Brancato. 1997. Comment on "Elevated accumulation of tributyltin and its breakdown products in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) found stranded along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31(10):3032-3034.

Harding, M.J.C., S.K. Bailey, I.M. Davies, and R. Länge. 1996. Effects of TBT on the reproductive success of the dogwhelk, Nucella lapillus. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, ICES CM 1996/Q3. Kopenhagen. 14 p.

IPCS (International Programme on Chemical Safety). 1990. Environmental Health Criteria 116, Tributyltin compounds. World Health Organization, Geneva.

Iwata, H., S. Tanabe, T. Mizuno and R. Tatsukawa. 1995. High accumulation of toxic butyltins in marine mammals from Japanese coastal waters. Environ. Sci. Technol. 29:2959-2962.

Iwata, H., S. Tanabe, T. Mizuno and R. Tatsukawa. 1997. Bioaccumulation of butyltins in marine mammals: the specific tissue distribution and composition. Appl. Organometal. Chem. 11:257-264.

Kannan, K., B.G. Senthilkumar, S. Logananthan, D.K. Takahasi, D. Odell, and S. Tanabe. 1997. Elevated accumulation of tributyltin and its breakdown products in bottlenose dolphins (Turisops truncatus) found stranded along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31:296-301.

Kannan, K., K.S. Guruge, N.J. Thomas, S. Tanabe and J.P. Giesy. 1998. Butyltin residues in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dead along California coastal waters. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32:1169-1175.

Keithly, J.C., R.D. Cardwell, and D.G. Henderson. 1999. Tributyltin in seafood from Asia, Australia, Europe and North America: Assessment of human health risks. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. 5(2):337-354.

Krajnc, E.I., P.W. Wester, J.G. Loeber, F.X. R. van Leeuwen, J.G. Vos, H.A.M.G. Vaessen, and C.A. van Der Heijden. 1984. Toxicity of bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide in the rat. I. Short-term effects on general parameters and on the endocrine and lymphoid systems. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 75:363-386.

Kuehl, D.W. and R. Haebler. 1995. Organochlorine, organobromine, metal, and selenium residues in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) collected during an unusual mortality event in the Gulf of Mexico, 1990. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 28:494-499.

Kvitek, R.G. and J.S. Oliver. 1988. Sea otter foraging habits and effects on prey populations and communities in soft-bottom environments. Pages 22-45 in G.R. VanBlaricom and J.A. Estes, editors. The community ecology of sea otters. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, West Germany. [Ecological Studies, 65]

Kvitek, R.G., A.K. Fukuyama, B.S. Anderson, and B.K. Grimm. 1988. Sea otter foraging on deep-burrowing bivalves in a California coastal lagoon. Mar. Biol. 98:157-167.

Länge, R. 1996. Monitoring of current levels of TBT seawater and evaluation of the risk for the environment in the context of recent ecotoxicity data. In: The Present Status of TBT-Copolymer Antifouling Paints Proceedings, International One-Day Symposium. The Hague. 21 February 1996.

Länge, R. and H. Schweinfurth. 1999. Endocrine effects of tributyltin compounds. Unpublished report by Schering AG, Berlin. 3 pages.

Laughlin, R.B. Jr. 1996. Bioaccumulation of TBT by aquatic organisms. Pages 331-355 in M.A. Champ and P.R. Seligman, editors. Organotin. Environmental Fate and Effects. Chapman & Hall, London.

Lee, R.F. 1985. Metabolism of tributyltin oxide by crabs, oysters, and fish. Mar. Environ. Res. 17: 145-148.

Lee, R.F. 1991. Metabolism of tributyltin by marine mammals and possible linkages to effects. Mar. Environ. Res. 32:29-35.

Lee, R.F. 1996. Metabolism of tributyltin by aquatic organisms. Pages 369-382 in M.A. Champ and P.F. Seligman, editors. Organotin: environmental fate and effects. Chapman & Hall. London.

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MacLellan, D., M.S. Brancato, D. DeForest, and J. Volosin. 1998. An evaluation of risks to U.S. Pacific coast sea otters exposed to tributyltin. Pages 22-55 in Further updates on the toxicology of tributyltin, including assessments of risks to humans, wildlife, and aquatic life. Submitted to the International Maritime Organization�s Marine Environmental Protection Committee, MEPC 42, August 1998.

Marrack, D. 1997. Public health and toxic particles. In: Danger in the Air: Toxic Air Pollution in the Houston-Galveston Corridor. Report retrieved from the Internet on 10/20/98. Last updated March 18, 1997.

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Mussel Watch Program. 1998. NOAA�s National Status and Trends Program.Ostfeld, R.S. 1982. Foraging strategies and prey switching in the California sea otter. Oecologia. 53:170-178.

Parametrix, Inc. 1998. Annual Report: Year 6, 1997-1998. Long-Term National Monitoring Program for Tributyltin and Its Primary Intermediates. Prepared by Parametrix, Inc., Kirkland, Washington, United States. 2803 pp.

Reinisch, K. and P. Schultze. 1998. Risk assessment of exposure to tributyltin during commercial application of antifouling paint. Pages 7-21 in Further updates on the toxicology of tributyltin, including assessments of risks to humans, wildlife, and aquatic life. Submitted by CEFIC to the International Maritime Organization, Marine Environmental Protection Committee 42, August 1998.

Russell, D., M.S. Brancato, and H.J. Bennett. 1996. Comparison of trends in tributyltin concentrations among three monitoring programs in the United States. Mar. Sci.Technol. 1:230-238.

Smith, B.S. 1981. Male characteristics on female mud snails caused by antifouling paints. J. Appl. Toxicol. 1:22-25.

Spooner, N. and L.J. Goad. 1990. Steroids and imposex of the dog whelk Nucella lapillus. Proc. 3. International Organotin Symposium. Monaco. 17-20 April 1990.

Tanabe, S.M., T. Prudente, J. Mizuno, I.I. Hasegawa, N. Iwata, and N. Miyazaki. 1998. Butyltin contamination in marine mammals from North Pacific and Asian coastal waters. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32:193-198.

ten Hallers-Tjabbes, C.C., B.P. Mensink, B. Van Hattum, and J.P. Boon. 1996. Impact of traditional antifouling in open sea, risk and ecological consequences. The Present Status of TBT-Copolymer Antifouling Paints; Proc. Intern. One Day Symposium on Antifouling Paints for Ocean Going Vessels, The Hague. 21 February 1996.

Thain, J.E. and M.J. Waldcock. 1986. The impact of tributlytin (TBT) antifouling paints on molluscan fisheries. Water Sci. Technol. 18:193-202.

USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 1986. Test methods for evaluating solid waste. SW-846. 3rd Edition. [Method 3600C, Revised 1996]. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Washington, D.C.

USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 1997. Ambient aquatic life water quality criteria for tributyltin - draft. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, D.C. EPA-822-D-97-001.

Yukizane, S., R. Yamakawa, T. Murakami, H. Kato and N. Niikawa. 1994. A 15-year-old girl with pubertal masculinization due to bilateral gonadoblastoma and 45,X/46,X,+Mar karyotype. Kurume Med. J. 41(3):155-159. 

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